Novel And Its Kinds

Undoubtedly, Literature acquaints the readers with all ups and downs of the world and keeps before them the great ideas and methods for their survival. Indeed, it is the mother of all literary forms according to the taste and choice. All are great source of entertainment and instruction. When the drama was declined, the short stories and the novels got a golden opportunity to get birth and to show their importance to the readers. Apart from it, the drama was performed on the stage in the theatre, and it was essential for the public to go and to watch the drama. So it was a great consumption of precious time. This new genre saved such time because it is written in books. It is in a narrative form, and it can not be performed on the stage. It proved as the best companion during journey in order to remove the tiredness and suffocation. This new genre has got a great popularity by increasing the interest of the educated persons. They got a great chance to write the stories in their concerned fields. In this way, so many types of novels are emerged before the readers. 01 The Picaresque Novel: The word ‘picaresque’ is derived from the Spanish word ‘Picaro’, which means ‘rogue’ or ‘knave’. These novels narrate the tale of the adventures or misadventures of a rogue who moves from one country to the other country, from the town to the country, from one place to the other place etc. He changes places, and such changing of places is very helpful for the novelist to introduce different characters, culture and other living manners of the different regions. The novelist always keeps the aim of delighting and entertaining the readers. For it, he uses weak as well as strong or funny things of culture of that region or country .It is performed by the funny characters of that locality. The Picaro meets all the sorts of peoples and does not avoid going even to a dirty place. The novelist satirizes such dirty places and provides a major chance of entertainment to the readers. This kind of novel helps the author to introduce his work and to make it popular in all localities or countries. In English literature, Thomas Nash is the first writer of picaresque novel. He wrote ‘The Unfortunate Traveler’, relating to the adventures of Jack Wilton. He travels through France, Germany, Flanders and Italy. Nash depicts marvelous scenes of the land, but he has given much coverage to horror, torture and violence. Smollett’s novels also come in the picaresque realm. From his work, he looks more experienced in this genre. When we say ‘Picaro’, it means that the novel depends on intrigue and adventure. This author has made it a central figure but in construction, they are extremely loose. So it is clear that his novels are strings of adventures and personal history. Fielding is very different. His novel ‘Tom Jones’ is written on the picaresque model. His hero Tom Jones is an illegitimate son who wanders aimlessly because he was kicked out of the home by his patron. He is imprudent but not wicked or rogue by heart. He performs various adventures, joins army and fights for a good cause. Due to hero’s various adventures, the author succeeds to introduce the variety of characters. Moreover, Tom Jones is not a rogue. He is generous, and suffers from pains of conscience. If he had been a rogue, he would not have turned back to his love. His generosity, innocence, true love and meek heart confirm him a good and true person. As far as his plot is concerned, it is coherent and well knit. The other great novelists are Charles Dickens and Thackeray. Charles Dickens wrote Great Expectations, Pickwick and Papers, and Thackeray wrote Vanity Fair. 02. The Panoramic Novel: The panoramic novel is known as the epical novel. In it, the novelist depicts a comprehensive picture of the life of the times. He narrates society and its habits, culture and manners. He plays the role of a realist. He studies the society thoroughly and discusses all the places and the incidents with a wide knowledge. Henry Fielding is the creator of this kind of novel. His novel ‘Tom Jones’ is constructed on this type. He narrates the life history of Tom Jones, and his wandering from one place to the other place. The novelist succeeds to provide a comprehensive picture of the life of the times. This novel has a number of episodes, and all are tied into one thread. Its plot is complicated, and it is episodic and panoramic. It reflects the wide picture honestly. It is better to call it a mirror of the contemporary life. He narrates roads, inns, streets and other places. The whole depicted pictures reveal his personal experience. Thackeray’s Vanity Fair is also panoramic. He portrays the picture of London, Brighton, Paris, Rome, Brussels and Pumpunickel. Even he depicts the pictures of city, country estates, academy and prison. He narrates all manners and habits. Such wandering from one place to the other place helps the author to introduce different characters to make the work more attractive. The novelist not only gives an immense panorama of the social life but also exposes their follies in the Vanity Fair. 03 The Historical Novel: It is also a kind of novel that provides the account of life to the readers. In the historical novel, the author fits facts into fiction. We call it strange because a novel is made on imaginary events; but the novelist alters it by his artistic method. He makes it able to carry the facts, which are borrowed from the history. It is possible that the novelist borrows events and characters from the history and makes them charming with fictitious enchantment. When the novelist writes such novels, he does not work as historian but as an artist. He arranges the events according to his own choice, and narrates imaginatively the life of the past. It is the method that does not allow the fact and the fiction to interrupt each other. It is known as an artistic method. We find so many historical novels in English literature. Sir Walter Scott is an eminent historical novelist, and apart from it, he is the creator of this kind of novel. He succeeded to blend history and fiction or fancy artistically. In order to understand the method, he considers history as the sequence of facts and narrates passion, plot and characters and arranges them nicely. According to his artistic method, it does not remain mere history but it also becomes a rather magnetized history in which its every fact leads to some local pole of unity. His novels cover three centuries of English, Scottish and European history. The main element that leads his novels to success is his lively imagination. He does not mention the past merely but he uses his knowledge of contemporary life to sympathize and harmonize his old world characters. So its success lies on his study of realism. Walter Scott is an artist; his using imagination free has made the past alive and glorious. The other novelists who wrote the historical novels are Bulwar Lytton (1803-1873), William Harrism Alnsworth (1805-1882), Charles Kingsley (1819-1875) etc.Bulwar Lytton’s novels Rienzi and The Last Days of Pompell are historical novels. The second novel is his masterpiece work. Thackeray’s’ Henry Esmond is full of imaginative interpretation of history. In it, we find conscience, hesitation, doubt and conflict between love and duty. It represents geographical realism. William Harrism wrote some forty historical novels. His best known historical novels are Road word, Jack Shepherd, The Tower of London, Old St. Paul’s and Lancashire Wliches. In his novels, his narrative style is vastly better than that of his dialogues. Charles Reade is a great historical novelist. His masterpiece work,’ The Cloister and the Hearth’ is a historical romance. This novel contains a true Renaissance of wonder in its pages. Charles Kingsley is a great historical novelist of the Victorian age. West Ward Ho is one of his most important novels. It is based on the patriotic tale of adventure, intrigue and noble enterprise. In the 20th century, there is the decline of such historical novels. 04 The Novel of the Social Reform: In this type of novel, the novelist deals with the problems of society and tries to solve them. It means that his intention is to reform the society. Charles Dickens is the first English novelist who acquaints the readers with the social evils of his age. He made his novels a great weapon to terminate social evils and reform the society. Indeed, he has rendered a great service to save the public from suffering. He highlights the employment of child labour through the suffering of David Copperfield, employed in various industrial establishments. In those days, there was no rule or restriction for the factory owners. They were free to exploit children for their benefits. David goes to work at the age of ten; he works from early in the morning till the mid night in a suffocated environment, but he is paid six or seven shillings a week. Such amount was insufficient and poor for him. At last, he suffers majorly, and his suffering represents the suffering and helplessness of the concerned era. Charles Dickens depicts the picture of prisons in David Copperfield. In his time, the prisoners were not treated like mankind. Such actions were used just for revenging but not for reforming them. In such conditions, the different diseases used to attack the prisoners, and they were compelled to live a miserable life. Charles Dickens depicts all appalling pictures in order to awaken the age. He satirizes the educational system of the day that was controlled by the private persons. The owners of such schools were educationists only in names but they were uneducated and illiterate to the methods of imparting education. Their behaviours towards the students were harsh and contemptuous. In David Copperfield, legal system is criticized .Charles Dickens gives detailed account of the working of courts, doctors, common people and their abuses. His focusing the lawyers’ offices succeeded him to portray the many abuses of the legal machinery of his day. The selfish lawyers exploit the legal machinery for their own benefits because their aim was to earn money. The novelist does not reconcile himself to the poor laws. The same suffering is prevailed in our homeland and there is more sufficient matter to write so many novels of social reform. 05 The Regional Novel: A novel that depicts physical features, life, customs, manners, history, living manners or all movements of some particular area is known a regional novel. The novelist shows constant stress on eminent features of particular area and depicts its scenes, sights, landscapes and geographical features. This art is creative because the novelist selects material and puts into it the spirit of distinctiveness. In result, the work becomes universal. It is a quite dramatic novel because it deals with the ordinary men and women of the particular locale. He depicts all their habits. In this way, this particular region is immortalized in the regional novel. Moreover, concentration within a limited region results in intensity of emotion and passion. It is found in the novels of The Brontes and the’Wessex Novels’ of Thomas Hardy. Maria Edge worth (1767-1849) is a major regional novelist of England. In 1800, she published her ‘Castle Rackrule’. P.H. Newby compares her with Jane Austin because she achieved a new territory for novels. She gave fiction a local habitation and popularity. She discovered the region Ireland, and with it the Irish peasant. She was an Anglo Irish novelist who exploited the humour of the Irish peasantry and its relations to the big houses. All the later, regional novelists follow her. Sussan Ferriel (1782-1854) is the other great novelist of the age. Marriage, The Inheritance and Destiny are her famous novels. There are so many common things found between these two novelists. Three Bronte’s sisters come among the greatest novelists of England. The Yorkshire Moorlands is a region that forms the background to their novels. They all present its landscapes. They have not only used its rich rough dialects but also presented its people realistically. In Wulbering Heights and Shirley, the Yorkshire character is shown realistically. In their novels, repetition is found but the readers found interest and high emotions. There is a lack of freshness because of the limited experience. Their novels are the centre of emotional atmosphere and passionate love. In regional type of novels, we can not forget George Eliot and her work Adam Bede, Mill on the Floss and Slins Morner. These novels represent the life of Midland Counties of Warwickshire and Derbyshire which she knew to great extent. Her material is from her personal memories and companions. In their novels, realism is prominent. Thomas Hardy is also a regional novelist. His novels possess the scenes of English Channel, Cornwall and Oxford. He depicts hills, rivers, meadows and woodland heaths repeatedly in all his novels. He also portrays all the things of the particular region, and for this reason, he is an important regional novelist. It verifies that he has a good knowledge. He narrates the physical characteristics of his Wessex with great appropriateness and realism. In The Mayor of Casterbridge, he depicts real life. There is the exact reproduction of the town of Donet. Arnold Bennet is also a great regional novelist. His work possesses exact realistic and regional picture of life. The Five Towns, The Old Wives’ tale, Clay hanger and Imperial Palace are among his better known novels.Simultaneosuly, the modern age also possesses good novelists. They are E.C .Booth, Mary Webbe, Thomas Moult, Shella Kaye Smith, and Frances Brett Young. 06 The Psychological Novel: Novels are the great source of knowledge because novelists expose all their knowledge and experience. Simultaneously, psychological novels help the readers to understand the psyche of the persons who come in their contacts. The psychological novelists scrutinize the motives, impulses and mental movements of their characters. Such novelists easily understand the interior conflict and struggle of the characters and give the readers chance to extol their good habits and condemn the bad habits. Samuel Richardson, George Eliot and George Meredith are some of the great psychological novelists. 07 The Stream of Consciousness Novels: It is a new kind of novel that traces the flow or flux of emotions and feelings, passing through the consciousness of a character. Whatever comes, the character says because it is unorganized. The character says his thoughts which are incoherent. Henry James, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, William Faulkner and Dorothy Richardson have written this kind of novels. 08 The Sentimental Novel: This term started in the mid of the 18th century that reveals refined or elevated feelings. Richardson’s Pamela (1740) and Rousseau’s Nouvelle Heloise (1761) are sentimental type of novels. This type of novel shows passionate attachment between the sexes. It rises above the physical passions. This novel is verified as one of the features of Romantic Movement. Sentimental novels of 19th and 20th century have an invertebrate emotionalism and a deliberately lachrymal appeal. Dickens fails to be a sentimental novelist. Mrs. Henry Wood, the author of East Lynne (1861), is a sentimental novelist. 09 The Detective Novels: English literature is very rich in fiction. There are so many novelists who made this form rich. Apart from it, there are also other types of novels adopted by our writers. They are Gothic, pastoral, apprenticeship and detective novels. The people of modern era mostly like detective novels and read them with great interest and enthusiasm. The detective story thrills the readers with mysterious crimes. The detective story and mystery are synonymous. The spy stories of Ian Fleming have elements of mystery and detection. The detective novel began as a respectable branch of literature with works like Poe’s “Murders in the Rue Morgue” (1841), Dickens’ unfinished Edwin Drood (1870), and Wilkie Collins’ Moonstone (1868) and Woman in White (1860). It is right that English literature is rich in case of fiction. The novelists are increasing day by day with their interest and diligence. The new types of novels are being introduced in the literature, which fully depict the picture of life.

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